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英语学习干货:怎样通过阅读外刊提高英文写作?
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发表时间:2018-04-17 11:08作者:Monkey来源:长沙励步英语网址:http://www.firstleapcs.com

长沙励步英语最新资讯: 大多数人不赞成人为抬高英语学习成本。教学生的时候,最反对的就是一口气买一大堆参考书。然而国内不少英语作文辅导书和英语培训机构往往会让考生背诵各种“高分句型”和写作模板,但这种做法往往事倍功半,很多考生用了这些句型后非但不能加分,还有被扣分的危险。这是因为这些句型和模板很多都被用滥,考官对此早已免疫。另一个原因是考生在使用句型时生搬硬套,并没有真正理解它们的含义以及使用语境。

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对于英文写作来说,掌握一定数量的句型和模板是非常有益的,但这并不意味着我们需要去使用现成的,已经被无数考生使用过的表达。更好的方法是自己在阅读中总结句型,构建属于自己的语料库。外刊就是一种非常合适的材料,因为外刊有不少文章属于议论文,这与考场英语作文的要求是相契合的。

我会在接下来的系列文章中从《经济学人》、《卫报》、《每日邮报》等知名刊物中选取分析适合应用在议论文中的句型。我会尽量说明选取这些句型的逻辑,这样各位平时在阅读中也可以自己去发现和积累它们。

一、If not more so

If not more so是地道英文中很常见的一个表达,但很少在中国学生的习作中看到。可能的一个原因是if not more so在中文里面很难找到一个对等的概念,而对于母语中没有的概念,我们会倾向于不去使用它。if在这里通常用来指与句子主要部分的陈述稍微不同(used when you are adding that something may be even more, less, better, worse etc than you have just said)。if not more so意思很微妙,它的大概含义是“即使不是更……”。例如The Economist文章里面有这样的句子:

The next phase of the computing revolution is the “internet of things” (IoT), in which all manner of everyday objects, from light bulbs to cars, incorporate computers connected permanently to the internet. Most of these gizmos are as insecure as any other computer, if not more so.

上面这段话的意思是:目前很多日常设备都开始接入互联网(即所谓的“物联网”),但这些设备像普通的电脑一样不够安全,很容易遭到攻击。Most of these gizmos are as insecure as any other computer, if not more so. 可以理解为“这些设备中的大部分即使没有更易遭受攻击,也和其他电脑一样不够安全”。

朗文英英词典里面也有类似的例句:

Her needs are just as important as yours, if not more so.

这句话的意思是“纵然她的需求不更重要,但至少和你的一样重要”。

除了if not more so这个句型之外,if not…还可以接形容词构成其他搭配,例如if not impossible/great/forgivable,举个例子:

The snow was now two feet deep, making it difficult, if not impossible, to get the car out.

这里if not impossible相当于although it was not impossible,句子可以理解为“雪有两英尺厚,要把汽车拉出来很困难,尽管不是不可能。”

这一句型可以用在考场作文中用于对观点进行强调或补充。比如有这样一道作文题目:

Individuals can do nothing to protect the environment; only governments and large companies can make a difference. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

我们可以在开头段写:

People have different views about whether individuals can contribute significantly to environmental protection. Although governments and large companies are crucial in addressing conservation issues, the role played by individuals is just as important, if not more so.

二、The argument that…rests chiefly on the fact that…

在解释一个论点时我们通常会用到这样的句型:the reason why…is…,除此之外还可以有下面的写法:

Mr Ritter’s argument that Amazon and Zalando can comfortably co-exist rests chiefly onthe fact that Amazon is pursuing the more price-conscious shopper, whereas Zalando is after a higher-value, more brand-conscious segment.

从这里可以提取出一个句型:the argument that…rests chiefly on the fact that…,该句型可以用在议论文的段落开头,用来对分论点进行解释。举个例子,有这样的作文题目:

Some people believe that all high school graduates should be given the opportunity to go to college or university. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

我们可以提出一个论点,普及高等教育对一个国家的经济有利,并且进行展开:

The argument that higher education should be made universally available rests chiefly on the fact that doing so is in society’s best economic interests. Research shows that increased investment in tertiary education has a positive effect on a country’s gross domestic product. In the long term, a society with a greater number of highly-educated citizens are more likely to develop the creative technologies and business solutions needed to stimulate economic growth.

三、attest

在举例论证时最常见的一个说法是for example/for instance,但我们也可以换一种表达方式,比如:

Mr Yameen has weathered plenty of adversity, as the long list of his opponents attests. Media reports in August about moves to oust him came to nothing.

在上面的句子中as引导的是一个非限制性定语从句,它所指代的先行词是前面整个主句Mr Yameen has weathered plenty of adversity,此时as在从句中充当的是attest的宾语。Attest的含义是“证明,作为……的证据”。

我们也可以将句子改写成:

a) As the long list of his opponents attests, Mr Yameen has weathered plenty of adversity.

b) The long list of his opponents attests that Mr Yameen has weathered plenty of adversity.

…as…attest…这一句型有时候可以用来替换for example/for instance,例如:

Air pollution can have a negative impact on people’s health. For example, people living in areas with poor air quality are prone to respiratory disease.

我们可以将其改写为:

a) Air pollution can have a negative impact on people’s health, as the rise in respiratory disease in areas with poor air quality attests.

b) Air pollution can have a negative impact on people’s health, as is attested by the rise in respiratory disease in areas with poor air quality.

四、easier said than done

除了句型之外,外刊中也有不少可以直接使用的“模板”,我们在阅读的时候要保持敏感,及时将它们记录下来。举个例子:

Instilling these techniques is easier said than done. With teaching as with other complex skills, the route to mastery is not abstruse theory but intense, guided practice grounded in subject-matter knowledge and pedagogical methods.

这一段话本来是写如何培养教师的教学技能,但它同样可以套用在其他技能的培养上,比如学英语/编程等:

Being fluent in English / a good programmer is easier said than done. With learning/coding as with other complex skills, the route to mastery is not abstruse theory but intense, guided practice grounded in subject-matter knowledge and pedagogical methods.

平时遇到这样的例子可以多积累,多背诵,写作时才能做到厚积薄发。

最后:在这个碎片化的时代,想要学好英语,最重要的无非是两件事情,一个是花对时间,第二个是提高接触频率。

本文由长沙励步英语官网发布,文章作者:Monkey


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